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Friday, September 1, 2017

Monuments to Non-Conformity

Barbara Hillary 1931-
Monuments come in all shapes, sizes, materials, relative importance. There are monumental figures who have shaped history, for example: President Barack Obama, Ms. Rosa Parks, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr, the Honorable Thurgood Marshall, Ms. Gwendolyn Brooks, Ms. Barbara Hillary, and many, many more esteemed individuals HERE. Then there are those who live large, in defiance of stereotypes and being pigeon-holed. They are monuments to the power and strength of the individual and group.

Starting in 2004, there has been an annual Afro-Punk Festival in New York. Some looks from the 2012 Festival can be found HERE. For some looks at the 2017 Afro-Punk Festival, look HERE.
Cordell Louis at Afro-Punk.Photo:Deidre Schoo NYT
In addition to this festival, there is an annual Everyday People dance festival in many locations around the country. HERE is as link to the 2017 daytime dance party in New York. This festival is a celebration of the African diaspora in all its differences, similarities, varieties.

Michael Twitty has been on a mission of Culinary Justice. As a black, gay, Jewish food historian and chef he is bringing awareness of the African roots of Southern cooking and its importance in the history of America. He is concerned that this history/knowledge is being buried and lost. He is currently on a book and lecture/cooking demonstration tour, hoping to engage people in thoughtful conversation.

Michael Twitty
There is a Federation of Black Cowboys: this link is to the New York Chapter. Most people are unaware that in the heyday of cowboys, 25% were black and played a very important role in shaping the West. THIS link takes you to several sub-topics on this subject at BlackPast.org. A history of black cowboys can be read HERE. An essay in The New Yorker magazine on modern cowboys, including black cowgirls, can be found HERE.

And finally, no commentary on living large is complete without the mention of fashion super star André Leon Talley. Mr. Talley has established himself as a style consultant and taste maker and "maven" of the fashion world. All the people and groups mentioned here are monuments to style, culture, non-conformity, and to celebrating life.

Monday, July 31, 2017

Our Neighbors to the North

The history of black people in Canada goes back to, and is intertwined with, French and British settler/trader history in both what became Canada and what became United States. An excellent timeline can be found HERE and HERE, covering 1600-the present and divided into four time periods.

William Hall 1857 receives Victoria Cross
The first named black person arrived in Canada in 1605: Mathieu da Costa was a freeman who was hired as a translator for Samuel de Champlain. The American Revolution (blacks who supported the English left as the political winds blew against that side) and slavery/The Civil War in the United States were both instigators for free and enslaved blacks to find their way to Canada. While many black people in Canada had also arrived enslaved, because Canada had remained part of Britain and France longer than the US had, the laws of abolition enacted in France and Britain earlier encouraged blacks in the US to go north.

The history of Black Canada is a rich one. Early on, blacks were involved in sports, the military, politics, and medicine.  But like the history of blacks in United States, times have not been easy. There are issues of injustice and inequality.  Through all of this, people make art, are successful, work on changing the situations and the narratives. More images of black Canadians can be found HERE (with some black
Jennifer Hodge de Silva 1951-1989 filmmaker
Americans also included!).

Black Canadians in older, established neighborhoods in various cities are facing issues of gentrification and of having their histories erased or made invisible. In July-Aug 2017, there is a 30 minute documentary at the Vancouver Art Gallery showing three Vancouver black women being interviewed about how the black community in Vancouver, BC is being rendered invisible. It is well worth seeing.

Black Canadians in Queens Park 1920 with Ontario Premier

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Summer Projects....for You!

Summer is a great time to catch up on reading; to learn about people and places not necessarily in the headlines, but worth knowing; to share stories and information with friends and family. This blog has, in the past, posted on travel to heritage beaches, to National Park Sites of historic interest, travel through books and reading, travel with historic themes. These can be accessed by clicking on the Blog Archive listed in the column to the right of this page. Below is a mere sample of places and people to visit with this summer. Make your own suggestions and explorations in the comment section of this blog post!

Rhiannon Giddens

Blogs/websites to check out:
AfriClassical
The Walking Ghosts of Black History
Black Media Mine
BlackPast.org
field negro
Black Science Fiction Society
Official Black German Society
The Black Presence in Britain



Abdulrazak Gurnah


Books:
Homegoing by Yaa Gyasi
Stay with Me by Ayobami Adebayo
Gravel Heart by Abdulrazak Gurnah
The Book Smugglers of Timbuktu by Charlie English
The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead




 

Tracy K. Smith


People:
Tracy K. Smith, Poet Laureate of the United States 2017
Angel Gardner, Youth Poet Laureate Seattle 2016
Francis Kéré, Architect  In the news.
Rhiannon Giddens, musician (Freedom Highway, original music based on narratives of the enslaved)




Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Cultural News from Black Britain

David Olusoga (photo Des Willie BBC)
 This spring brings interesting news about Black Britons in the the arts and culture arenas: in television, movies, and books. David Olusoga, producer, documentarian, and presenter, created a BBC series "Black and British: A Forgotten History" and an accompanying book, reviewed here. His interests and concerns grew out of his personal experience growing up as an immigrant in Britain and realizing, with growing frustration, how little of the history of Black Britons was visible, going all the way back to Roman times (please note, this blog presented a small feature on an aspect of this topic here).

Naomi Ackie as Lady Macbeth

A similar concern about limited acting opportunities in period dramas or film productions has pushed actors, producers, and directors to investigate the presence of people of color as part of British history. The most recent example of this is the casting of Naomi Ackie as Lady Macbeth in Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, a play by Nikolai Leskov. Producer William Oldroyd set the play in Northumberland in the 1860's. Oldroyd's research revealed that, in poring over old photographs from northeast England, there were not only many working class black families, but also aspiring middle class black people as well.

Reni Eddo-Lodge


If you have not yet read or heard of Reni Eddo-Lodge, you are in for a treat. Her blog post/book/this essay, Why I'm No Longer Talk to White People About Racism, puts the responsibility, the onus, the issue/problem squarely on the shoulders of white people. Her discussion of feminism, structural racism (an interesting distinction from institutional racism) is important, instructive, and a burden to be shouldered by white people.

Saturday, April 29, 2017

The Florida Highwaymen


by Robert Lewis b.1941
Artists need support from art infrastructure such as galleries, museums, agents to succeed beyond their studios. This infrastructure was in short supply (read: none) for African American artists in the 1950's and 1960's. A group of artists in Florida realised that, in order to get anywhere, they would need to get beyond the middlemen and market their own work.

Alfred Hair 1941-1970
The artist Alfred Hair was the catalyst behind the nine artists who were the founding core of The Highwaymen. The group later expanded to twenty-six artists who are considered The Highwaymen or The Florida Highwaymen (there was only one woman in the group). After Hair was killed in 1970, the group slowed down substantially and their "brand" became less visible, until their rediscovery in the 1990's by Florida journalist Jeff Klinkenberg and Florida art historian Jim Fitch. The group was inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame in 2004.

Mary Ann Carroll b.1940
The lone woman in the group, Mary Ann Carroll, was a guest of First Lady Michelle Obama on May 8, 2011 at the The First Lady's Luncheon. Ms. Carroll presented First Lady Obama with a painting of a poinciana tree.

There have been two PBS documentaries on The Highwaymen, one produced in 2003, The Highwaymen: Florida's Outsider Artists; the second, The Highwaymen: Legends of the Road,in 2008. A new film, The Unknowns: Talent is Colorblind, is due to be released in 2017. In 2012, NPR did a series of features and interviews of several of the Highwaymen and those can be listened to here. Gary Monroe has written what is considered the definitive book on The Highwaymen, The Highwaymen: Florida's African American Landscape Painters.  The Highwaymen's works of art, of which there are over 200,00 pieces, are highly sought after and can now be found in galleries and at auctions.

Thursday, March 30, 2017

Intellectual Giants, Race Relations, & International Relations

A book was published in 2015 called White World Order, Black World Power by Robert Vitalis. Professor Vitalis accidentally happened upon some information that ultimately caused him to write this book (find a review of this book in the London Review of Books here and one in Black Perspectives in AAIHS  here). The names W.E.B. duBois, Alain Locke, Ralph Bunche, Rayford Logan, and (to a much lesser extent) Merze Tate are known as giants in academia and were the foundation for what Vitalis calls the Howard School (as in a particular school of thought and
Merze Tate at Oxford 1935
philosophy). What had been lost to history was the extraordinary role these thinkers/scholars played in the formation of the field of International Relations and therefore the foundation of US foreign policy. While they were brushed aside as the field developed, their research, interests, and publications in race relations and "race development" were a challenge to their white contemporaries.

The issues of segregation, racial equality, colonialism, imperialism, paternalism, isolationism, "social and cultural Darwinism", and international racial parity all played a role in both domestic and international policy. These academics and thinkers forced their white counterparts (not necessarily successfully) to consider where they stood on various combinations of the above "isms" and Vitalis demonstrates how the white academics and thinkers moved from and through various positions as they were forced to acknowledge (some of) the ideas of the black thinkers. What is very clear is the racist underpinnings of US foreign policy and how this grew out of the history of slavery, colonialism, and the mercantilism of resource development.

Sunday, February 26, 2017

The Sport of Kings and a Select Few African Americans

Thoroughbred horse breeding and racing in its modern form has a long history dating back to 17th century England and is inextricably linked with American history. Thoroughbred racing developed in all the British Colonies, Europe, Argentina, Japan. All modern Thoroughbred stallions can trace their lineage to three horses brought to England from the Middle East. Thoroughbred mares are traced back to Northern Europe and the Middle East.

Oliver Lewis 1856-1924
So, how are African Americans involved in this illustrious history? Maryland and Virginia were the centers of thoroughbred breeding in the American Colonies, as well as South Carolina and New York. Horse racing in New York goes back to 1665. After the American Revolution, Kentucky and Tennessee became the centers of activity. Except for New York, all the other states were slave-holding states. Enslaved Africans and their descendants were central to the business of thoroughbred horse breeding and then later in the racing industry as well. Enslaved workers were skilled riders, grooms, and trainers on the plantations. As a result, they were dominant as jockeys: in the first Kentucky Derby in 1875, thirteen of the fifteen jockeys were black and the race was won by black jockey Oliver Lewis riding Aristides, the horse trained by former enslaved Ansel Williamson. African American jockeys won 15 out of the first 28 runnings of the Kentucky Derby. Two years after Oliver, the race was claimed by seventeen year-old William WalkerIsaac Murphy, the son of a formerly enslaved man, is considered the greatest American jockey in history. Murphy rode 628 winners of his 1412 mounts. He won the Kentucky Derby three times, the American Derby four, and the Latonia Derby five times. Four more black jockeys would win fame at the Kentucky Derby: Alonzo "Lonnie" Clayton (at 15, the youngest to ever win), James "Soup" Perkins, Willie Simms, and Jimmy "Wink" Winkfield. Winkfield would be the last African American to ride in the Kentucky Derby. Murphy, Simms, and Winkfield have been inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, New York.

Isaac Burns Murphy 1861-1896

This dominance of black jockeys in thoroughbred racing did not last. By 1921, there were no blacks racing at all. The rising tide of institutional racism, cemented by Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896, the demands by white jockeys in New York to eliminate black jockeys from the circuit, and the rise of Jim Crow meant that by 1904, virtually no black jockeys were racing. Many black jockeys left the American circuits to race in Europe (particularly Germany, France, and Poland) and Russia. The history of blacks in thoroughbred racing seemed to come to an end. As time went on, with the connection to the past broken, blacks were rare in any segment of the racing industry, with Latino jockeys taking precedent.

At the 139th Kentucky Derby in 2013, St. Croix native Kevin Krigger was the second black jockey to race in 92 years. The first had been Marlon St, Julien in 2000. On Martin Luther King Jr's Birthday January, 2017, there was a rare occurrence: the winner of the feature race at Aqueduct in Queens, New York, was Green Gatto owned by brothers Gaston (trainer) and Anthony Grant, ridden by jockey Kendrick Carmouche, with the placing judge who presented the trophy being Sentell Taylor, Jr: all of these men are black. Whether this is a harbinger of a greater involvement of African Americans in the sport remains to be seen.

Sunday, January 1, 2017

Happy New Year 2017!

This past year, 2016, was a year of learning and growth. This blog covered a wide variety of topics, which I hope readers found interesting and spurred them to do further research. The topics showcased African Americans enriching the history, culture, and civics of our nation. Links to the posts of 2016 are listed below. If you missed any, please check them out! And, as always, check out BlackPast.org for new additions to the website.

Photos, Books, Food, Drink: Legacies and Sustenance for the Soul
Interconnectedness: Artists in our Midst
Memorial Day:A History of Honor and Service by Black Troops
The Postal Service, Philately, & African Americans
Interesting News (you may have missed) from Summer 2016
Cutting Edge: Politics and Art
Two Stories to Reflect Upon as 2016 Comes to a Close

Comments, suggestions, ideas are always welcome.

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Two Stories to Reflect Upon as 2016 Comes to a Close

Two profoundly affecting interviews highlight the power and importance of the imagination, art, endurance, hope, and hard, hard work. As 2016 comes to a close, please listen to the interviews below.

Anthony Ray Hinton (left)
The first is an interview conducted by John Hockenberry of WNYC with Mr. Anthony Ray Hinton who was released in 2015 after spending 30 years on death row in Alabama. Mr. Hinton is an innocent man. I cannot do justice simply telling his story, it needs to be heard in his own words.  Please, please take the time to listen. I will, however, share some of the comments about the interview, as they are instructive.



Krista from Oregon

My soul is deeply touched by this broadcast. Hope his story promotes change.
Dec 20, 2016, 8:58 PM
 
BigGuy from Forest Hills NY
Hinton spent 30 years on death row. After 14 years imprisoned, he waited another 16 years for the court to review the exculpatory evidence of a ballistics test analysis. Hinton rose above his horrific circumstances by using his imagination. Down to earth, he stayed true to his faith in God and strengthened his character. Before he was arrested, he was a good man, and after 30 years in prison, he has become a better man. He is a good example for us all. He strives to do what is right. He has forgiven those who have done him wrong, even though those wrongdoers of the Alabama justice system have not admitted doing him wrong and have not apologized at all. May God bless us to be able to handle adversity as well.
Dec 20, 2016, 11:33 AM
 
Judy Lerner from 11570
Mr. Hinton's story is tragic-denied the ability to live a full life. But, no one has mentioned that the real murderer has gone FREE. No justice anywhere in this story.
Dec 20, 2016, 9:52 AM
 
Wm. H. Evans, Media, Pennsylvania from Media, Pennsylvania
John, Thank you for reporting this travesty against Anthony Ray Hinton. His is just one of many similar stories. America's prisons are full of these stories. The imprisonment of Leonard Peltier is one; the attempted murder of Judi Bari for her out-spoken protests and leadership against the rapacious timber industry in California is another; the atrocities in Syria and Aleppo with no response to Assad's crossing that red line Obama laid down; the appointments to high government office being made by president-elect Donald Trump is opening the flood gates to even more. Hope has become just another 4-letter word.
Dec 20, 2016, 6:20 AM
 
Doug McCanne from Portland, OR
I'm a regular listener to your show and enjoy the topics. This interview was so moving and heart touching I felt I wanted to respond. One of many things that stood out in this interview was that NO ONE in Alabama said they were sorry. I wonder where Jeff Session, the nominee for Attorney General and Alabama Senator was when this man was convicted and sentence so wrongly. Where does he stand on an apology. Was he part of that system that wouldn't hear the truth and kept that man in a cage for so long. I think I know the answer to this, it would be great if you would follow up on this and let the world know. This is the power of the media. But mostly I hope Anthony gets to meet the queen in person.
Dec 19, 2016, 7:55 PM
 
Steve Carle from Edina, MN
John, you closed this story with an admonition of what can result from an "overzealous criminal justice system." Please don't use the euphemism "overzealous." Call it what it is: racist. I recently sat on an all white jury in a criminal case with an African-American defendant and was astonished at the blatant racism among jurors, even in "liberal" Minneapolis.
Dec 19, 2016, 4:10 PM
 
antwuan wallace from brooklyn, ny
a most profound lesson in humanity. the intersections of his beliefs, actions and recursive actions are seamless. And, all of it earned in the most difficult of situations. incarceration, in general, and the death penalty, in particular, has a most pernicious impact on the ethos of and our material justice system. the best of journalism is presented here: a person telling his story in his own unvarnished language with clarity and purpose. this was a most profound story.
Dec 19, 2016, 3:22 PM

Edith Brown from Lisle, Illinois
I heard this on the program today, Mr. Hinton's statements were so compelling that I had to hear him tell his story again. It brought to my mind how I first discovered that I did not believe in the death penalty. I was 8 or 9 years old when the Rosenbergs were put to death for spying. I just could not believe that they were going to kill these two people. Ever since that day, when someone is put to death, I feel that a small part of me dies as well because I sense that I am personally participating in a murder. I feel that people are being murdered in my name. Because the prosecution always represents the people of the state or of the United States. I was out of town when the Chicago Tribune finally said in a Sunday editorial that the death penalty in Illinois should be abolished. I searched until I found the paper. Thankfully, we do not have the death penalty in Illinois. However, I realize that it can be reinstated at any time.
Dec 19, 2016, 2:20 PM

The second interview was conducted by Brent Bambury of CBC, the Canadian public broadcasting company, with a former high school principal, Liz Dozier, in Chicago trying to address the enormity of the problem of youth violence and death in that city. She highlighted an innovative organization, Storycatchers. One of their programs is in the juvenile detention system and is designed to help these young citizens recognize who they are, their potential, the power of story telling to change lives. Theatre and storytelling are transformative experiences for all people in all societies, but especially those in dysfunctional settings.

Friday, October 7, 2016

Cutting Edge: Politics and Art

Art is political whether purposefully or inadvertently. Art can be manipulated, can make a statement through what is created or the mere creating of it. It is possible to enjoy and appreciate art regardless of its intent; it is possible to fulminate against the message no matter how beautiful the object. But art, its creation, display, ownership reflects and projects power.

The independence of Senegal in 1960 and the election of Léopold Sédar Senghor as president was the beginning of Dakar becoming both the center and the jumping off point for promoting and celebrating art from Africa. While studying in France, beginning in the 1930's, Senghor was one of the leaders of the Negritude Movement, a movement of black Francophone writers and intellectuals who used language (French) to explore their cultural heritage. Upon his return to Senegal, Senghor was determined to see artists and countries in Africa on the world art stage, engaging with European artists with excitement and equity. He established Dakar's École des Beaux-Art (School of Fine Art) in 1960, hosted the World Festival of Negro Arts in 1966, all of which culminated founding of the prestigious DakArt Biennale in 1992 and exhibiting in Harlem, USA in 2000.

The African art explosion and influence continues  and is manifested at such events as the fourth annual 1:54 (this name comes from 1 fair, 54 countries) in London (October 2016) and New York (May 2016). One hundred thirty contemporary artists are represented.
Check out the virtual tour, right, of the exhibition space in London and be sure to tour the website of 1:54 for some great eye-candy and thought-provoking art work!

The arts and artists cannot exist without support, whether from the public or from private collectors. Collecting, too, becomes a political act: if no one appreciates and values the works of any particular group of artists, by genre, geography, ethnicity, then those artists, their message, and their works languish. Here is one list of the top 200 collectors in America of Black art. One of the most powerful proponents and collectors of art of the African Diaspora and Africa is Pamela Joyner. Reading the link about Joyner (left), the most striking impression one gets is her intentionality about what it takes to collect and support art: knowledge, passion, money. And, as the first President of Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor, knew, unless patrons of the arts support arts in the schools, artists in their studios, exhibitions for artists to show their work, advocate with museums and donors to purchase art, artists who do not have political power/support cannot compete on the world stage, no matter how talented they are.
Addendum: check out this great opinion piece here about the need for museums in all countries in Africa.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Interesting News (you may have missed) from Summer 2016

This summer has been dominated by news from the Rio Olympics (where African Americans scored in the medal department) and the 100th Birthday of the  National Park Service (where African Americans and other minorities are in short supply, but there is hope). 

Thomas' The Splashdown of Apollo 13, 1970
The artistic life of Alma Thomas was celebrated in an exhibit at the Studio Museum in Harlem. Ms. Thomas (1891-1978) was a teacher and modernist/abstract artist, the first to graduate in fine arts from Howard University in 1924. Two of her paintings have hung in the Obama White House.

Another artist of note was in the news lately. The poet, playwright, and award-winning children's author Joyce Carol Thomas passed away August 13, 2016. Her first book, Marked by Fire (1982) was a National Book Award fiction winner in 1983. Ms. Thomas was born in rural Oklahoma and moved to California when she was 10. Her books dealt with rural black life because she felt that so few African American children had an appreciation for the richness and complexities of the stories from these black communities.

Middle schoolers at Seward Park
"Birding while Black". That is the mantra of Joey Manson, Director of the Audubon Center at Seward Park in Seattle, Washington. His goal is to get more families of color into the great outdoors and figures the best way to do that is to involve the children and engage the parents with their enthusiasm. In a radio interview, Mr. Manson discusses the need to expand love of and appreciation for wildlife and environmental concerns, as well as to increase the diversity of people and political opinions in conservation. If more people of color do not take up the mantle of concern and care, he fears for the future of conservation because up until now, that has primarily been the concern of older white people and they will be an increasing minority in this country's future.

Niki Okuk of Rco²
The young entrepreneur Niki Okuk has been making waves in the business world on three fronts: black female business owner, green/recycling business, employing people with prior criminal convictions. Ms. Okuk's company, Rco² Tires keeps used tires out of dumps and landfills and recycles them into a variety of useful industrial products. The company is located in Compton, California, where Ms. Okuk grew up. She returned after getting degrees from Columbia and MIT and began the company in 2012 and now has 16 employees.

Saturday, July 30, 2016

The Postal Service, Philately, & African Americans

Blacks have been involved in the delivery of mail since the beginning of slavery. Trusted enslaved blacks had been delivering parcels and letters between plantations. It wasn't until a Congressional Act in 1802 that only free whites were allowed to deliver the mail. Concerns about communication and rebellion amongst enslaved (black) and indentured (white) people were the impetus behind this new law. According to the Smithsonian National Postal Museum, the ban was expanded in 1828 "to include the regulation that 'if negro labor was required to 'lift the mail from the stage into the postoffice', it must 'be performed in the presence and under the immediate direction of the white person who has it in custody.'" This particular regulation remained in effect until 1862.

William H. Carney 1840-1908
Postal records did not keep data on race in the 19th century. However, it is known that during Reconstruction nearly 500 blacks were employed in the postal service, including 116 postmasters. The earliest known black postmaster was James W. Mason, Sunny Side, Arkansas in 1867. He later served as a delegate to the Arkansas Constitutional Convention and became a state senator. Despite the fact that many African Americans "experienced hardships in their jobs, the Post Office Department continued to appoint African Americans to high level positions."  These people included Joshua E. Wilson, George B. Hamlet, and John P. Green. William H. Carney, the first African American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor, was a letter carrier in New Bedford, Massachusetts, and served there from 1869 to 1901.

Minnie M. Cox
The early 20th century saw both increased opportunities (that began with the Pendleton Act Civil Service Act of 1883) for blacks in the postal service as well as increased segregation (President Woodrow Wilson's segregation of employment in the federal government). Minnie Cox, (1869-1933) was the first black female postmaster in the United States in Indianola, Mississippi, appointed to this position by President Benjamin Harrison and reappointed by President William McKinley and again reappointed by President Theodore Roosevelt. Significant controversy erupted over her appointment and she resigned, but President Theodore Roosevelt asked her to remain on. However, the situation was so threatening that  President Roosevelt suspended all mail delivery to Indianola. Mrs. Cox chose to leave in 1903 before the end of her term. The post office reopened in 1904 but at a demoted rank of class 3 rather than class 4 (who knew post offices had class rankings!). In October 2008, the postal service facility in Washington, D.C. was named the Minnie Cox Post Office Building in honor of Mrs. Cox.

The 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion was made up of 855 enlisted African American women and officers and managed the military's mail amongst other duties. They were lead by Major (later lieutenant colonel) Charity Adams Early (1912-2002), the highest ranking black woman by the end of the war. The battalion was first deployed to Birmingham, England and later to Rouen, France.

In spite of large employment numbers of blacks in the postal service and their long history of service, there is much evidence into the 1990's that African Americans were assigned to lower paying jobs and dismissed at a higher rate. Despite this, a number of individuals have made it into the upper ranks of the service. Among them was Henry W. McGee, the first African American postmaster of a major facility in Chicago, Illinois in 1966. And,  Emmett E. Cooper, who held the positions of "Chairman of the Board of Appeals and Review, Director of the Postal Management Branch, Bureau of Operations, Manager of the Postal Service’s Detroit District, and Postmaster of Chicago. Cooper held his position of Regional Postmaster General of the Eastern Region from 1977-1983."
first African American Postmaster of a major postal facility, - See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/mcgee-henry-wadsworth-sr-1910-2000#sthash.aftA4tiK.dpuf
first African American Postmaster of a major postal facility, - See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/mcgee-henry-wadsworth-sr-1910-2000#sthash.aftA4tiK.dpuf
first African American Postmaster of a major postal facility, - See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/mcgee-henry-wadsworth-sr-1910-2000#sthash.aftA4tiK.dpuf

This year marks the 70th year that African Americans have been featured on stamps of the United States Postal Service; a complete list through 2014 can be found here and here. And images here. For those interested in philately (stamp collecting), they should explore ESPER, Ebony Society of Philatelic Events and Reflections.
The United States Postal Service has been an integral part of African American history and lives.

Friday, May 27, 2016

Memorial Day: A History of Honor and Service by Black Troops

Memorial Day is time to remember and honor the troops who have defended the principles underlying the foundations of the United States of America, in conflict after conflict. There were individuals in each of the conflicts who overcame great obstacles to serve and to be recognized for that service and a list of many of those firsts can be found at BlackPast.org website here. In this post, the sheer numbers of black citizens who served in each of the conflicts, beginning with the Colonial era and ending with the Vietnam War, will be observed. The sheer numbers of black people, going back to the beginning of "old world" settlement in the "new world", who have invested their blood in this history, should give pause for thought, reflection, and appreciation.

Colonial Period (1528-1774)
1. Initially, scattered black individuals fought with the Dutch, English, French armies and settlers in various conflicts with each other and the indigenous Native nations.
2. In 1706 in North Carolina, a militia was formed to fight against Native Americans and, in the event of conflict, all males, black, white, enslaved, free, were required to serve.
3. In 1711, blacks fought in the Tuscarora War in North Carolina.
4.The Yamasee War of 1715-1717 in colonial South Carolina had 400 black people and 600 white people fighting fourteen Native American tribes.
5. In 1730, blacks constituted 10% of a (French) force that clashed with Natchez warriors near Pointe Coupee, in what is now Louisiana; freedom was recommended for those who fought.
6. In 1736, blacks accounted for 19% of the Spanish forces that were engaged in another conflict with the Natchez, this time in Mobile, Alabama. Accompanying the Spanish was a separate company of blacks with free blacks serving as officers, a first in a colonial military unit.

American Revolution (1775-1783)
Blacks constituted 20% of the colonial population of 22 million people. Fear of slave revolts meant that there was resistance on the part of whites to arming blacks. However, blacks were needed to fill out the militias. Black minutemen fought at Lexington and Concord, but there was concern about having them in the regular army. By December 1775, 300 blacks signed up to fight with the British, who had promised them freedom for doing so. The response by the Colonists was to request participation by free blacks only; slaves were not encouraged/allowed to enlist. By the end of the war, 5,000 black soldiers had served in the Colonial Army of 300,000 and 20,000 had served with the British. Many who had served in the Colonial Army were given land grants for their service and those who were enslaved were granted freedom. There were a few blacks in the small Continental Navy, but race was not often noted on the ships' rosters.

War of 1812 (1812-1815)
New York was the first state to recruit blacks to fight and 2000 free and enslaved people signed up. A battalion of blacks was also formed in Philadelphia, but the war ended by the time they were ready to fight. Because the war was largely a naval war, blacks were in great demand for two reasons: 1) their experience in the Revolutionary War and 2) their relatively unlimited access to jobs in shipping businesses. Blacks were 10-20% of most ships' crews.

Seminole Wars (1816-1842)
The British built a fort on the location of an old Spanish fort in Florida during the War of 1812. They recruited Native Americans and runaway blacks to staff this fort. Raids were conducted into Georgia for recruits, thus encouraging more runaways. This was a major irritant to Georgia slave owners and an assault on the fort by the army was the beginning of the wars. Blacks constituted one-quarter to one-third of warrior strength that resisted the US Army in the removal of blacks and Seminoles from Florida.
Union Army Surgeon William P Powell (1 of 13 black surgeons)

Civil War (1861-1865)
More that 180,000 blacks served in the army during the war, this was 10% of the total Union strength. Plus, 200,000 blacks served in service/support units. In the navy, 30,000 blacks served out of a total of 118,000 enlisted personnel. By 1865, over 37,000 black soldiers died, comprising almost 35% of all blacks who served in combat.




Indian Campaigns 1866-1890
The US Senate passed a bill in 1866 establishing the Regular Army at 67 regiments (at 1,000 to 2,000 soldiers each), six were composed of black troops with white officers. This was the beginning of the era of the Buffalo Soldiers. These six regiments were reduced to four during a reorganization in 1869.

Buffalo Soldiers, Spanish American War
Spanish American War (1898)
When the battleship Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor in 1898, 22 black sailors died. There was a call to action by black leaders, though many black civilians were very sympathetic to the cause of the Cuban rebels. The regular army had only 28,000 troops in 1898; Congress authorized the activation of ten black regiments, but only four were mobilized.

369th (15th NY) recipients of the Croix de Guerre 1919





World War I (1914-1918)
In the regular army, the four black regiments were still active in the West, not for the Indian Campaigns, but for for the Mexican Punitive Expedition against Pancho Villa and for border patrols and these four regiments never went to Europe. Two divisions of black soldiers were formed plus stevedores and support services. Over 400,000 blacks served in uniform in WWI, with 10% assigned to combat units; 1300 were commissioned as officers (less than 1% of all officers).



First African American WACs to go overseas 1943



World War II (1941-1945)
Over 2.5 million blacks registered for the draft in WWII. Despite segregation in the navy, 150,000 blacks served. The Air Force had 145,000 black airmen, a remarkable increase from zero in WWI. Almost three-fourths of all enlisted blacks saw service in the army, this ranged from 5.9% of all enlistees at the time of Pearl Harbor to 8.7% in 1944. The same percentages used in WWI were used in WWII: 15.5% of all units were black combat support positions and 2.8% were combat arms.






Korean War (1950-1953)
Black troops were 13.5% of total US strength (5.7 million) and 80% of all black soldiers were assigned to all-black units and almost two-thirds were in support units.

Vietnam War (1960-1973)
Black citizens were 16% of all those drafted (over 9 million served during the Vietnam era and 2.7 million served in Vietnam), although only 11% of the US population. Young black men had fewer deferments than white young men and blacks were underrepresented on draft boards. Blacks had a higher casualty rate because they stayed in longer and volunteered for more elite units and therefore more dangerous missions.