Architectural Design in America

There is a rich heritage of architectural design in America by African Americans. While the number of these architects was not large, their influence has been and is far reaching (for instance, in 1930, of the 22,000 architects in the US, only 60 were African Americans). This blog post will feature buildings by 11 historically important architects; others can be found here at  Seven young influential architects in 2010 who have been successful in an industry where success is difficult for many are listed here.

1800 Africa House, Melrose Plantation, Louis Metoyer
Before any professionally trained and registered Black architects, there were skilled free Black and slave craftsmen and artisans in the building trades. Louis Metoyer (1770-1832), however, was trained as an architect in Paris and designed buildings in Louisiana, specifically Melrose Plantation, completed in 1833, a year after his death.

Julian Abele (1881-1950) was born and educated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as well as in Paris, France. He was the first formally trained African American architect. After returning to the US, he worked and resided in Philadelphia the rest of his life. He never did sign his drawings, but his best known work was for Duke University. He designed the west campus and the graceful Duke University Chapel that dominates the campus grounds.
Duke University, North Carolina, Julian Abele

Holman Field Admin Bldg, St. Paul.CW Wigington

Clarence W. "Cap" Wigington (1883-1967) was the first African American registered architect in Minnesota and the first African American municipal architect in America. He designed schools fire stations, park structures, and municipal buildings in St. Paul, Minnesota as well as elsewhere across the Midwest. The Holman Field Administration Building, a WPA effort, is currently the control building for the St. Paul Downtown Airport.

Tudor house, Pasadena, California. Paul Williams

Paul Williams (1894-1980) was a star architect as well as architect for the stars. Williams grew up and worked in Los Angeles, California. Williams designed more than 2000 homes as well as public buildings, public housing after WWII, churches, and commercial structures. His most visible 'face' in Los Angeles is the Theme Building at Los Angeles Airport. He worked in successfully in many styles from 'Tudor' to 'Modernist'. 
La Concha Motel, Nevada. Paul Williams

The recipient of awards, honorary degrees, and accolades, he was a socially and politically astute.

Verntner Woodson Tandy (1885-1949) was the first registered Black architect in New York State and the first African American to belong to the prestigious AIA, American Institute of Architects. He studied architecture at Tuskegee Institute before transferring to Cornell University, NY. His most famous commission was Villa Lewaro, the mansion of the millionaire, Madam C.J. Walker.

 Louis A.S.  Bellinger (1891-1946), was born in Sumter,South Carolina, attended Howard University, and moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after serving in the First World War. His first major commission was to design
Villa Lewaro, NY. Verntner Woodson Tandy
The (former) Pythian Temple, Pittsburgh. Louis Bellinger
Central Park in 1920, the home field of the Pittsburgh Keystones, the African American baseball team. He designed municipal buildings and facilities, commercial properties, as well as public and private housing in both Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. Unfortunately, most of his buildings do not survive. The Pythian Temple, commissioned by the Knights of Pythias in 1927, was Bellinger's most important building. It featured a terrazzo floor, Italian marble, a 5000 square foot auditorium where basketball games could be played.

Buffalo Zoo Entrance. John E. Brent
John E. Brent (1892-1962) was born and raised in Washington, D.C. He earned architecture and horticultural degrees from Tuskegee Institute and Drexel Institute in Philadelphia. He spent most of his professional career in Buffalo, New York. He was employed by an number of architectural firms as well as the Buffalo Parks Department working on municipal, public, and private commissions.
Founders' Library, Howard University. Albert I. Cassell
University (Baltimore, MD), and Virginia Union University ( Richmond, VA). He designed and built civic structures for Maryland and the District of Columbia.

Albert Irvin Cassell (1895-1969), born in Towson, Maryland, received his architectural  degree from Cornell University, NY. He was first hired by the Architecture Department, Howard University. His architectural visions and designed shaped the campuses of Howard University (Washington D.C), Morgan State College in Baltimore, MD.

 Beverly Greene (1915-1957), was born in
Chicago, Illinois. She attended the University of Illinois and Columbia University, NY. She is believed to be the first African American woman registered as an architect. She either worked for or owned firms in Chicago and New York city. Her first employer was Roderick O'Neil, believed to be the first Black architect to have an office in downtown Chicago. While working for Marcel Breuer, she is credited with his firm's design for New York University and UNESCO's headquarters in Paris.

UNESCO HQ, Paris. Beverly Greene

Norma Merrick Sklarek (1928-2012) was born in Harlem, New York and received her architectural degree from Columbia University, NY. She was the first African American woman registered as an architect in both New York and California. Before moving to a successful career in California, she worked for the NYC Public Works Department and the prestigious architectural firm Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill.
San Bernadino City Hall. Norma Merrick Sklarek
Robert Traynham Coles (1929-) was born in Buffalo, NY and received architectural degrees from the University of Minnesota and MIT. His architectural firm is the first and oldest Black owned firm in NYC and the Northeast. He has designed buildings for the public and private sector throughout the Northeast. He has been a leader in civic and philanthropic circles.
Frank Merriweather Library, Buffalo NY. Robert T. Coles

J. Max Bond, Jr (1935-2009)  was born in Louisville, Kentucky and received degrees in architecture from Harvard University. His career centered around New York City but his designs were national and global in scope. He also served as Dean of Architecture at City University of New York. Prior to his death, he was instrumental in the planning for the 9/11 Memorial.
Birmingham Civil Rights Museum. J.Max Bond Jr.